An Inspiring Challenge

17. November 2016

The last few weeks seem to have been characterized by the term "change." While each new change to the status quo impacts our daily lives at varying levels, as a whole, they are causing us to look towards the future with both concern and hope.

Here, in her recent CAM Lounge, OSA Senior Member Dr. Patricia Bath takes a moment to focus on hope and provide some inspiring advice for future and current scientists. Although, those familiar with Dr. Bath's groundbreaking work, briefly summarized by Biography, will find her admonition "do better than I did" to a daunting challenge!

Women in Science, Inspiration

The Mid-Career Transition

28. October 2016

There are many reasons to begin searching for a new job or career path—and just as many everyday-life hindrances, such as recurring bill payments, that make taking the leap into a new position unnerving. Sometimes self-doubt is the biggest deterrent to change.

Luckily, Engineering and Technical Jobs, in the article You Can Completely Change Your Career - and Your Age Won't Matter, has compiled the key questions to answer in determining whether you really are ready to make a career transition. These rather straightforward questions, such as "How happy are you at the moment?", are surprisingly thought-provoking as you find yourself answering the real question: "Is job dissatisfaction the real source of this unhappiness or are there other areas that can be addressed as well?"

No matter how confident you are in your skills, experience and knowledge, the job search arena can be overwhelming, even if you have only been out of job-search mode for a few years. To help ease the shock, several online resources, like Job Seeking for the First Time in Years: How To Do It, another article from Engineering and Technical Jobs, offer simple guidance for established professionals who are re-entering the applicant pool. Tips range from updating your CV to brushing up on the latest advances in the field. Taking courses to expand your skill set and volunteering while on the job hunt are great ways to constructively use any employment gaps!

Job Search

Conquer Social Anxiety One Conference Reception at a Time

18. October 2016

With the autumn meeting and conference schedule in full swing, the air is frequently buzzing with new scientific advances and applications. The plenaries and panel talks are invigorating and inspiring. Then come the anticipated, yet dreaded, cocktail hours and receptions.

A great opportunity to engage in further discussion and to forge new connections for future collaborations, the social aspects of conferences are also a huge source of anxiety for some. Although attendance isn't mandatory, many people feel pressured to attend - and, once there, are awkward and unsure of themselves, marveling at the conversational ease displayed by the extrovert in the center of the room.

If this sounds familiar, you are not alone. While there is no instant cure for social anxiety, Forbes contributor Megan Bruneau has 5 Hacks For Overcoming Social Anxiety and Networking Like a Pro that you can begin implementing today. Don't be discouraged or skeptical of the beginning step, "Change Your Relationship to Anxiety" (as if you need help being aware of it!). The small steps advised in the article center mostly around mental preparation, like remembering that anxious thoughts are not "objective truths." We found that what's in this resource can be applied to many other aspects of life, not just large scientific conferences.        


Are Your Online Profiles Haunting You?

14. October 2016

The internet has revolutionized the job hunting process in some really great, and some not-so-great, ways. A prime example of the double-edged nature of internet-enabled capabilities is the internet name search. Many experts strongly advise active job seekers to ensure that if a prospective employer were to search their name, most search engines will return their most relevant resume information. But what happens after the job offer is accepted? How many of us remember which websites we posted our profiles and resumes on, let alone return to them to deactivate our accounts?

Those mysterious and now out-of-date profiles are not just cluttering the spam box of your email with new alerts; they may actually be impacting your online presence, or digital footprint. Long after the job search ends, your digital footprint is continuing to speak for you to a wide variety of audiences including current and prospective colleagues, fellow conference attendees, potential clients, and even funding sources.

In her article, Ten Ways Your LinkedIn Profile is Hurting Your Credibility, Forbes contributor Liz Ryan lists simple things to do that will keep the popular networking website from becoming problematic. The first, and biggest, piece of advice: Keep your profile current! Review and update your professional activities every few months while they are still fresh in your mind. An updated profile can also make networking at events much easier. As Liz points out in the article, "it only takes a moment to grab someone’s business card when you meet them, and to ask them, 'May I send you a LinkedIn connection request?'"   

Your Digital Footprint

An Extra Dose of Inspiration For This Monday

3. October 2016

As The Optical Society celebrates the past 100 years, we cannot help but look towards the next 100—a period that some scientists are referring to as the Century of the Photon. At several events this year, OSA is hosting a series of Centennial Authentic Moment (CAM) Lounges to give members a chance to share what they find exciting about optics and photonics, as well as their visions for the field’s future.

Over the next few months, we’d like to share some of the videos that we have found to be particularly inspiring. After all, on some Mondays it takes more than that first cup of coffee to get you through those unread emails!

Here, in a discussion of his current work, OSA Fellow Kishan Dholakia, University of St. Andrews, U.K., poses some very interesting and inspiring questions, such as: does quantum friction exist? Visit the OSA Stories page for the entire collection, and keep a lookout at upcoming events to record your own CAM Lounge video!


Bright Futures Q&A: Debbie Berebichez

28. September 2016

OPN recently had the opportunity to talk with Debbie Berebichez about an increasingly hot topic for physics graduates: careers in data science.

Berebichez received her Ph.D. in theoretical physics from Stanford University, Calif., USA, but opted to not pursue an academic career. Instead, she sought out roles unexplored by most scientists. Berebichez first combined her love for communicating science in her online video series, “Science Babe: The Science of Everyday Life.” In these videos, she explained basic science, like the inner workings of a microwave oven. The videos attracted the attention of Oprah Winfrey, and in 2007, Berebichez was invited to be the keynote speaker at a conference on women’s leadership organized by Winfrey and her team. From there, Berebichez went on to host scientific television shows—even while working a day job on Wall Street.

Berebichez is now the chief data scientist at Metis, a data science-training company. Here, she tells us of her unique path to this burgeoning field and how other physicists can make the same transition.

OPN: Many would assume physics and data science are quite different. Tell us about your journey from one field to the other.

I decided to leave academia in 2009, and that’s when I became aware of “quants”—physicists and mathematicians on Wall Street.

I met physicists who were happy applying their quantitative skills on Wall Street, so I decided to try it. I first worked for a year for a quantitative hedge fund. I enjoyed it. What I was doing there—even though it didn’t have the name of data science—was essentially data science … I found the math fascinating and challenging.

OPN: You then spent six years on Wall Street. Can you elaborate on how you were eventually introduced to data science as a field?

I heard of data science late in the game; I guess I had never heard the term. My friend Hilary Mason, a renowned data scientist, invited me to speak at a conference called DataGotham. I talked about my work in finance. People approached me at the end claiming that what I was talking about was data science. That was funny, because for me it’s always been quantitative science—I didn’t really know what data science was. I started to find out more and more.

I left Wall Street, and it was quite easy, actually, to find a job in data science. They really crave people with physics backgrounds. Plus, if you’ve had some experience with Wall Street, they really like that combination.

OPN: Metis, your current company data offers science boot camps—intensive courses lasting a short time. These seem to be quite popular. Can you tell us more about them?

Our boot camp is a 12-week immersive program held in either New York, N.Y., USA or San Francisco, Calif., USA. Our instructors are experienced senior data scientists. They teach students about Python (a programming language), statistics and algorithms. Students also learn about machine-learning, deep-learning and big-data tools such as Hadoop and Spark.

The boot camp is structured around project-based learning. Students complete five projects throughout the 12 weeks. At the end of the program, students present their final project in front of an audience of companies that will hopefully hire them.

OPN: How does one become a student at a (Metis) boot camp?

We have an admissions process that’s just like a university’s. Applicants get two interviews with instructors where they (the applicants) answer technical questions. We admit about 35 to 40 percent of our applicants.

If we feel that an applicant is going to struggle in a boot camp, we’ll reject them. We let them know where their weaknesses are so that they can apply in the future. We’ve had many people who’ve come back to us that way. We also give about 60 hours of pre-work, to get participants up to speed with what they’ll be learning, and to homogenize backgrounds.

OPN: Boot camp sounds intense. How do students adjust?

We deal with the “imposter complex” quite a bit the first few weeks. We tell students that we want the water level to be at their neck, so they’re not completely drowning, but it’s not the shallow end where people can comfortably walk. This way everybody feels challenged.

Boot camp feels like an incomplete process, because it doesn’t feel like you master everything. But that’s part of what data science is, since it’s such a complex field. You’re never going to know everything; you’re never going to master all the algorithms. As long as students are comfortable looking things up and thinking on their own, then we’ve done our job. But it is a challenge.

OPN: If somebody’s coming into data science from a physics background, what are the holes that somebody in that position might need to fill?

You will realize—if you try to move into data science—that physics is an immense gift. Physics is the basis for so many things; it helps people acquire the essential skills of data science—how to solve problems and how to communicate the solution of those problems to stakeholders—no matter what field you’re in. I haven’t seen any other type of preparation that is better at taking the plunge and solving problems than a physics background.

OPN: What is the best way to prepare for a career in data science?

Boot camp is certainly a great option; we’ve had many physics students and other quantitative backgrounds come through the boot camp run. The biggest challenge is the softer skills like communication … it’s almost like they get rusty with that after spending many years in the lab or in academia.

Besides the boot camp, there are plenty of resources out there. There are many Coursera courses online—even universities are getting on the wagon and offering data science courses (though my own view is that those tend to be very slow compared to the boot camps).

OPN: Is there a place in data science for those who are further along in their careers? Say a mid-career professional in optics wanted to make a career change—would data science be accommodating to someone in that situation?

I would venture to say that Metis’ oldest student was close to 60. The incredible thing is that the salaries that you start with in data science are a lot higher than the ones that people have in academia or research.

It’s very interesting to see people who are mid-management or at the executive level in their careers come and be humbled by this boot camp—it’s challenging ... They definitely go through this sort of shaky month or two. They question if they’ll ever come out successful on the other side.

OPN: But you’ve had mid-level or executive level professionals find success in boot camp, yes?

Yes. Many of the students, once they get the hang of it and learn it’s okay to get your hands dirty, and not be the best for three months—and really try to learn as much as you can—are the students that are older and get amazing positions. They renew themselves and have this new lease on their professional life, because they never thought at 45, 50 or 55 they would be able to get jobs.

OPN: What are the big growth areas in data science going to be?

There are many cutting-edge techniques. For example, natural-language processing is applied to many different fields­­—from marketing to artificial intelligence (AI) and spatial analysis. Medical device companies use data science. Anything that has to do with what’s called the “Internet of Things,” like putting sensors everywhere to optimize climate control in a factory, or to optimize the driving of a driverless car, also use data science.

All the independent AI stuff requires an immense amount of data science power … it’s a huge, booming industry hiring data scientists. Therefore, anything that’s related to products that collect data—and needs to be analyzed for insight—requires data science.

OPN: Data science has also made its way into traditionally less technical fields. Tell us about some of the advances there.

There’s quantitative marketing. Many online ad agencies struggle to know the impact of their ad campaign; they want to have smart advertising. They’re not happy with simply putting an ad on TV and not knowing. Obviously, that industry has evolved a tremendous amount.

Even trading companies like DataMiner (who trade based on social network data) do a sensitivity analysis to see, for example, what items are becoming popular on Twitter before Black Friday. They apply data analysis techniques to know how to influence the market and sell different products.

OPN: What sort of companies are hiring data scientists?

All the big online companies, like Facebook and Google, are constantly looking for data scientists because they want to be able to recommend products to people, and they want the recommendations to be refined and targeted. They use machine-learning methods, like collaborative filtering and classification algorithms to find people like you. They’re recommending what they have bought or find your historical pattern and recommend products based on that.

OPN: What sort of innovative work is coming out of data science?

I find deep learning to be fascinating. It’s part of this cutting-edge area that combines machine learning with neural networks. Neural networks were something that physicists tried to use many years ago, but didn’t have the computing power. Now it’s a way of finding the answer to deep questions, including science questions. I believe IBM’s Watson may be using this with their successful bio part. That’s an area that’s more cutting-edge, and companies that are doing virtual reality and AI are getting into it.

OPN: You’re speaking at the Strata conference on how data can be misleading through the poor use of statistics. Can you tell us more about this?

I think that’s a question that is deep in my heart. Coming from physics, I want to teach data science not as a memorization book, but as a critical thinking exercise. But that experience of people working very closely with data—and being incredibly savvy at manipulating data—and yet not knowing what they’re doing, that is everywhere in data science. It’s really alerted me to the necessity of having people think through their datasets and what they’re doing, before they become savvy at data mining.

Dr. Debbie Berebichez is the chief data scientist at Metis. She is also a physicist, TV host and STEM advocate. She graduated from Stanford University, Calif., USA, with a Ph.D. in Physics, and received undergraduate degrees from Brandeis University, Mass., USA. Berebichez is a co-host on Discovery Channel’s Outrageous Acts of Science TV show.

Photo by Bruce F. Press Photography

Career Path, Nontraditional Science Careers, Profiles

Is Your Wokplace Diverse? Why Not?

27. September 2016

The National Science Foundation (NSF) provided a grant asking this very question. Now Joan C. Williams and Kate Massinger of the Center for WorkLife Law at the University of California’s Hastings College of Law are posing a possible answer: harassment.

In their recent article in The Atlantic, How Women Are Harassed Out of Science, Williams and Massinger share the experiences that STEM students and professionals have encountered at all levels of their careers, ranging from sexual harassment to pregnancy harassment. Some of these instances were overt; others were more subtle threats to funding and snide remarks. 

Although this study seems to offer a discouraging and depressing prognosis for women in STEM, it is actually one of several forums bringing this “open secret” into conversation. At the 2015 American Geophysical Union annual meeting, a town-hall session was held to discuss harassment. Other steps towards progress are occurring as well—of the 1,000 women postdocs surveyed by the authors, 59% belonged to institutions with maternity leave policies and 53% reported supportive supervisors. Some funding sources, such as NSF, provide supplemental funding to their supported projects for parental leave needs.

American Association of University Women and Know Your IX, both mentioned in the article, are two valuable resources available to support both women and parents experiencing difficulty in the workplace.


Is Finding Time to De-Stress Too Stressful? There’s Now an App for That

14. September 2016

Surely every busy professional has noticed the new mindset emerging that as more time-saving technology is being developed, there must now be more time available to allocate to other tasks—and these tasks should probably be work related! This additional time for tasking means less time for relaxing and more opportunity for stress to build up. With only so many productive hours available, there is a new movement to turn de-stressing into the latest multitasking activity.

Luckily, has saved us time by doing the research and gathering together a list of 13 Brilliant Gadgets and Tools to Help Stress Management. With the exception of the HoMedics Thera-P Shiatsu Kneading Massage Pillow, which requires laying on the pillow for the maximum effect, each of the apps and devices are designed to fit into busy schedules and can be used in almost any setting.

Many of the stress combatants on the list use biofeedback data, from mood tracking and breathing pattern awareness to brain wave measurement, to teach users to properly recognize stress and to deal with it as it occurs. Some of the devices play music or meditation games while others identify which pressure points are the most effective for that late afternoon headache. The full list, including prices and where to get the items, is here.


As The Days Shorten, Do You Have Room For A Shadow?

14. September 2016

For many, the arrival of September coincides with a longer commute, the return of pumpkin flavored commodities, and a new semester for ourselves and our children. These first few months are often full of energy and the excitement of discovery that each new academic year brings. What better time is there to think about the future of STEM education and your impact upon it?

With all of the advances being made within STEM fields, there is not a shortage of career paths, but will there be a shortage of STEM professionals? How do we encourage future generations to choose a STEM career when it is rarely glamorous on a daily basis and years of minutely detailed work go into each moment of invigorating certainty—a moment that may occur only once a decade?

It may be as simple as inviting high school students to come work with you for a day.

Science Daily's recent article, High school students who experience 'job-shadow' opportunities in STEM environments more likely to consider a STEM career pathdiscusses a new study published in National Communication Association's Journal of Applied Communication Research. Researchers have found that among the 229 high school students surveyed, “only a few students (1.8 percent) reported that they had received messages that made them aware of the opportunities for women and minorities in STEM fields, or of the general need for more professionals in these fields.”

While it may not be practical to host an entire high school class once a semester, providing a few opportunities for students to experience the different facets of working in STEM could be a great way to play a part in inspiring the future.


Bright Futures Q&A: Michelle Xu

27. October 2014


OPN: Many people in science initially envision themselves in an academic career. Was that your initial goal? If not, what career trajectory were you envisioning for yourself?

I did not initially consider an academic career because I was told that I was not smart. On one of my first grade tests, I thought that 1+1=11.

As I got older, however, I discovered “grit”, and started to excel academically as well as in sports, art and music. When it was time to pick a college major, I had the option to attend programs in fine arts, business or engineering. The three disciplines, all of which I loved, sat in orthogonal planes. There was no Venn diagram or spreadsheet could help evaluate the pros and cons, so instead I relied on my instincts. Ultimately I wanted to engage in a practical and tangible discipline, so, I picked engineering.

My career goal is to provide solutions that benefit society, such as sensors and computing devices that collect, store, and analyze data to forecast trends and enable preventative measures. Private sector organizations like Intel work closely with the end-users and the products, and so I believe my goals can be implemented and achieved much faster here.

OPN: How did you end up at Intel?

I have a long history with the company—my first job offers after completing both my undergraduate degree and doctorate were from Intel. However, after both offers, I felt I needed to learn more basic science and satisfy my inquisitive mind, so I decided to stay in school. By the time I was a postdoctoral fellow at UC Berkeley, I had studied electronics, photonics, control theory, programming, cell molecular biology, chemistry and atomic physics.

While I was contemplating how to apply all that I had learned in my almost 30-year academic career, an Intel manager found and recruited me. This time, I joined the company. Now, I am more knowledgeable and confident, and I am able to better contribute to Intel’s roadmap. I’m glad that I waited.

OPN: What was it like to transition from your lab to a large company like Intel?

It was great transitioning from Berkeley to Intel. I find it very exciting to start a new role in a new setting and to meet new people. Of course, I don’t move just for the excitement; instead, I pursue opportunities. I would be willing to relocate to the middle of a war zone for a good position—I have a very high tolerance for the difficulties associated with transitions like this, so there’s little I’m not willing to do for the right opportunity.

OPN: What is the culture like at Intel? How does it differ from other environments you’ve worked in?

Intel has 107,600 employees around the world, so the company culture is not homogeneous. Just like studying in different academic groups, the departments at Intel can vary greatly. I have held two positions at Intel: research assistant to Intel President Renee James, and engineer in the Intel Data Center Group. The culture in the first group is very professional and office-like, while the engineering group is similar to a university research lab setting.

OPN: What is your typical work day like and how does that differ from other work settings you’ve been in?

I have held two vastly different positions at Intel, so it really depends on the specific role. As the assistant to the president, I started working at 5:30 am and my days ended when I went to bed at 9:00 pm.

Now, as the data center engineer, my days start at 8:30 am. Because my team is distributed around the world, I work around the clock. Also, because I work with physical servers, I often stay in the server lab late into the evenings.

OPN: What are some of your own, personal characteristics that made the move to an industry career look particularly attractive?

I am compassionate, result-oriented, meticulous yet impatient, and ethically-minded. I am grateful that Intel values these qualities, in addition to my technical competencies.

OPN: What advice would you give to others looking to work with a large company such as Intel?

Regardless of whether you work for a large or small organization, it is important that you discover the career path that is best for you as an individual, by following your instinct and finding your passion.

Michelle Ye-Chen Xu is a member of the Intel Data Center Group, where she works in server rack networking and integration. Xu also served as the research assistant to Intel President Renee James. She received her Ph.D. in electrical engineering from University of Toronto, Canada, and was a postdoctoral fellow in atomic physics at U.C. Berkeley, USA. Xu was the President of University ofToronto OSA Student Chapter.


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